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Topic 14. Chemical bonding and structure HL

14.1 Covalent bonding and electron domain and molecular geometries

Formal charge: the # of valence electrons – # of bonds – # of nonbonding electrons

  • how far away from octet

  • ex. H2O's formal charge is 6 - 2 - 4 = 0

The rule of formal charge:

  1. when all atoms' FCs = 0, the molecule is more stable → preferred

  2. if both possible structures have a FC of 0 → most electronegative atom has the most negative FC

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The structure on the right is preferred over the left.

From Pearson

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From Pearson

14.2 Hybridization
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The purpose of hybridization is to be able to form identical σ bonds of equal energy levels

  • hybridized orbitals come from C, N, O, etc., never from H

single bond = 1σ = sp³ hybridization

double bond = 1 σ + 1 π = sp² hybridization

triple bond = 1 σ + 2 π = sp hybridization

* sigma bond (σ) and pi bond (π)

to determine which type of hybridization has occurred, count the # of sigma bonds.

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